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Knowledge about Host and different kinds of account

Kiến thức ban đầu về Host và các loại tài khoản liên quan đến Host

Như ở bài viết "Kiến thức cần thiết" tôi đã nêu: để tự làm Web bằng các phần mềm bạn cần có chỗ chứa mã nguồn (source code) - chính là một thư mục trên máy chủ (host server). Các nhà cung cấp dịch vụ máy chủ cho chúng ta thuê với mức chi phí từ 0$ đến 10$/tháng (có thể cao hơn nữa...)

Việc đầu tiên là chúng ta phải đăng ký với các nhà cung cấp dịch vụ, việc này cũng đơn giản tương tự như việc đăng ký sử dụng email hay bất kỳ một dịch vụ nào trên internet nên tôi sẽ không hướng dẫn chi tiết nữa - Và cũng giống như mọi dịch vụ khác, sau khi đã đăng ký, chúng ta có một "tài khoản" để đăng nhập vào hệ thống dịch vụ của nhà cung cấp: cài này là "tài khoản dịch vụ" (service account), ví dụ ở hình sau:

service account 1

service account 2

Với mỗi tài khoản dịch vụ đó, tùy theo nhà cung cấp mà bạn có thể thuê 1 hay nhiều chỗ chứa - mỗi chỗ tương ứng với 1 oép-sai, gọi là "tài khoản host" (host account), ví dụ ở hình trên tôi có 2 oép-sai (2 host account). Hình sau sẽ giúp bạn hình dung rõ hơn về "tài khoản host"

host account 1

host acc

Như vậy, mỗi "tài khoản host" là một thư mục mà chúng ta sẽ dùng để chứa mã nguồn (source code) cho phần mềm oép-sai chạy trên đó. Nhà cung cấp dịch vụ host cho phép chúng ta quản lý tài khoản này thông qua một ứng dụng nền web (web-base app) gọi là cPanel (hầu hết các dịch vụ máy chủ hệ Linux đều dùng cPanel) có giao diện trực quan rất dễ dùng.

Truy cập vào cPanel, chúng ta sẽ có một loại tài khoản nữa (ac..ac.. lại "tài khoản" nữa á! lắm loại quá nhề ?! surprise) - tài khoản này thường có dạng tên là một dãy số mà nhà cung cấp dịch vụ host tự động gán cho ta và sử dụng để truy cập vào cPanelFTP, ví dụ như hình sau:

Đến đây, ta có "tài khoản FTP" (FTP account) dùng để truy cập máy chủ qua giao thức FTP thông qua các chương trình FTP client. Mật khẩu của "tài khoản FTP" này chính là mật khẩu khi bạn tạo "tài khoản host" chứ không phải là mật khẩu đăng nhập của "tài khoản dịch vụ" đâu nhóe (trong một số ít trường hợp, khi tạo host không có bước tạo mật khẩu thì bạn sẽ nhận đc mật khẩu tự động qua email)

Như vậy, với việc thuê chỗ trên máy chủ chúng ta đã có đến 3 loại "tài khoản" khác nhau, nhưng việc cài đặt phần mềm oép-sai lên máy chủ chẳng dùng đến mấy cái tài khoản đó (trừ FTP account dùng để tải file lên). Hầu hết phần mềm oép-sai đều cần sử dụng một "cơ sở dữ liệu" (CSDL) để lưu thông tin, CSDL này cần được truy xuất bởi một "tài khoản CSDL" (database account). Trước khi tiến hành cài đặt phần mềm oép-sai, chúng ta phải tiến hành tạo CSDL và "tài khoản CSDL" thông qua trình quản lý cPanel.

Trong cPanel, bạn sẽ thấy có mục "MySQL" hoặc "MySQL database" (thường có biểu tượng hình con cá heo), bấm vào đó trình duyệt sẽ chuyển bạn đến bước tạo/quản lý CSDL (như hình sau)

database user

data user

Đây chính là thông tin quan trọng mà chúng ta cần biết (và không được để lộ cho bất kỳ ai khác) khi tiến hành cài đặt phần mềm oép-sai lên máy chủ:

  • Tên CSDL (database name)
  • Tên "Tài khoản CSDL" (database user)
  • Mật khẩu của "tài khoản CSDL" (password)

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